Manufacturer Notes: Bourne, Joseph

Denby 1809 Celebrating 200 Years Denby_History.pdf
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Belper.

About the middle or towards the latter part of last century, a small manufactory of common coarse brown ware existed here, and about 1800 Mr. William Bourne took to the works carried on by Messrs. Blood, Webster, and Simpson, at Belper Pottery. Mr. William Bourne, sen., was, it appears, very much engaged in the business of the then new canal. Letters of his, and of his son, William Bourne, jun., in which reference is made to his connection with the canal, and show business transactions between them and Mr. Duesbury of the Derby China Works, are in my own possession. Mr. Bourne carried on the manufacture of salt-glazed blacking, ink, ginger-beer, and spirit bottles. The ordinary brown ware, produced from a less vitreous clay, found on the spot, consisted of bowls, pans, 
puncheons, dishes, pitchers, and all the commoner varieties of domestic vessels, and these were of excellent and durable quality. The stoneware bottles, &c., were made from a finer and more tenacious bed of clay, at Denby, a few miles distant. The finer, or figured wares, were made from clay procured from Staffordshire. By Mr. Bourne all these descriptions of goods were made, but he principally confined himself to the manufacture of stoneware bottles of various kinds. A good antique-shaped hunting jug, and other similar articles, with figures in relief, was also extensively made. In 1812, Mr. Joseph Bourne (son of William Bourne) took to the Denby Pottery (which see) then carried on by Mr. Jager, and the two works were carried on simultaneously until 1834, when the Belper Pottery was finally closed, the workpeople, plant, and business being removed to Denby, and incorporated with those works, and the premises converted into cottages. From that time no pottery has been made at Belper. The site of the works was at Belper-Gutter, and " Pot-House Lane," the name of one of the streets, perpetuates the manufacture.

The mark used while these works were carried on in conjunction with those at Denby was this; and it may be well to remark that a series of political bottles, bearing representations of various Reform leaders, were made. On these the head of the individual —the King, Sir Francis Burdett, Earl Grey, Fig. 104. or whomsoever was intended — formed the neck of the bottle, and the arms and bust the shoulder; political references, and the name of the political leader, were impressed on the clay. One of these, which represents the King (William IV.) is engraved on Fig. 105. It bears in front the words "WILLIAM IV.'s REFORM CORDIAL,"—the " cordial" being the brandy or other spirit it was intended to contain. Another is a representation, in smaller form, of Lord John Russell (afterwards Earl Russell); it bears, in front, the name "LORD JOHN RUSSELL," and on a scroll which he holds in his hand are inscribed the words, " THE TRUE SPIRIT OF REFORM." At the back is the mark Fig. 104. At these works too, I believe, quaintly designed inkstands, of which Fig. 106 is an example, were made. The projecting lower jaw formed the well for the 
ink, while holes on the shoulders served for places to put the pens in when not in use. They were made of the ordinary vitrified stone-ware.

In 1827 a coarse-ware pottery was carried on here by Mr. Heapey.

Codnor Park.

The pottery at Codnor Park was built in the year 1820, by the world-renowned Butterley Iron Company, the owners of the famed iron works of Butterley and Codnor Park. At this time the Butterley works were under the management of the late Mr. William Jessop, son of one of the partners, and afterwards senior partner of the firm. Some years before this time the Company had constructed a large cast-iron bridge for the Nabob of Oude, and on its dispatch a brother of Mr. William Jessop accompanied it to India to superintend its erection, taking with him several workmen, among whom was an engine-fitter named William Burton. From some cause or other the bridge was not erected by the Nabob, and after remaining several years in India, the parties returned to England. On their return, this William Burton was induced to commence the pottery, and having engaged a skilled workman from the Brampton Potteries, near Chesterfield, he commenced operations in 1821. The pottery was situated near the Codnor Park Iron Works, from which it took its name, and pretty close to the Butterley Canal, and was successfully carried on for several years. Sir Richard Phillips, in his "Tour," in 1828, thus notes the pottery: —

"Over near Codnor Castle, I viewed a rough and ill-built manufactory, where they turn and bake those opaque bottles used for ginger-beer, soda-water, liquid blacking, &c. About 50 women and children finish 100 gross per day, and they sell the pints at 15d. and 16d. per doz., and all pints at 2s., and quarts at 3s. 6d. They are made of the clay of the vicinity, and the agent for selling them is Kemp, in Milk Street, London. They are harder and less liable to burst than glass bottles."

In 1832, Mr. Burton having got into pecuniary difficulties, the works were closed. After remaining unworked for many months, the concern was, in 1833, taken by Mr. Joseph Bourne, of the Denby Pottery. They gave employment to about sixty persons.

The Codnor Park Works were carried on by Mr. Bourne until 1861, when they were finally closed, and the workmen, plant, &c. were transferred to the Denby Works, where additional workrooms had been erected for their accommodation.

The clay was of a similar kind to that used at Denby, but owing to a larger impregnation of iron the ware produced therefrom was not equal in appearance to that made at Denby, though the bottles were highly vitreous, and had an extensive sale. This clay was obtained at Cupet Green, in the immediate neighborhood, and the coal from Birchwood Colliery. (The hard coal is the only kind adapted for burning in the salt-glazed kilns.) London was the chief market, the crates being forwarded by canal.

The classes of goods produced at Codnor Park were all the usual classes of household vessels, and also stoneware bottles of various kinds, and of all sizes up to six gallons, and pans, bowls, jugs, pitchers, and other articles. Besides these, however, a remarkably fine, compact, light, and delicate buff-coloured terra-cotta was produced. In this were made butter-coolers, vases of various kinds, flower-baskets and pots, ewers, spill-cases, and numberless other articles. Many of these were of excellent design, and beautifully decorated with foliage and other ornaments in relief. Puzzle-jugs, &c. were also made of this material, and surface-painted with a peculiar mottled effect. The mark during Mr. Burton's time was his name and " Codnor Park," or simply the name " 
Wm. Burton," impressed on the clay. The manufacture of ordinary household earthenware was discontinued when Mr. Bourne took to the concern, his operations being confined to the manufacture of bottles. For some of this information I am indebted to Mr. Humphrey Goodwin (through Mr. Bourne of Codnor Park), who was connected with the works from their opening in 1821 until their close.

Shipley.

These works were commenced about 1825 on the estate of Edward Miller Mundy, Esq., of Shipley Hall, by whom the buildings were erected, in consequence of the discovery of valuable beds of clay. They were first carried on by some working potters from the Staffordshire district, and the ordinary classes of goods in "cane" or "yellow" ware were produced, as were also Rockingham ware teapots and other articles. These were made to a considerable extent, and of good quality, but the works did not answer. They were next taken by a Mr. Waite, a blacking manufacturer, from London, who commenced making stone-ware bottles for his own blacking, and other articles of general use. Eventually, in 1845, the works passed into the hands of Mr. Bourne, of the Denby pottery, and were 
carried on by him. The clay at Shipley was of two kinds—one was obtained from the hard seam coal after the coal was worked, at a depth of 250 yards. This was of a beautiful and extremely fine quality, but was of itself difficult to work owing to a want of tenacity. It was found, however, that by using in equal proportions this clay and another known as the Waterloo seam, which was about 100 yards from the surface, an excellent body was produced. At this period the coal mines on the estate furnished saline and chalybeate waters, which were much in repute; and bottles, specially designed for these waters, were made in large quantities at these works. Some of these bottles are still preserved, and are of excellent material. They bear impressed on the side a garter ribbon, on which are the words In me suprema Salus, enclosing the name SHIPLEY SALINE WATER in three lines. In 1856 the Shipley pottery was closed; the workmen, plant, &c., being removed to, and incorporated with, the Denby pottery.

Jewitt, Llewellynn; The Ceramic Art Of Great Britain (London, Virtue & Co. Limited, 1878)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

The " Denby Pottery " is in the parish of Denby, seven miles from Derby and two from Ripley—a village memorable as being the birthplace of Flamstead, the astronomer—in the "midst of the rich ironstone and coal-fields of Derbyshire, the former of which are said to have been regularly worked from the time of the Romans. The works were commenced in 1809 by a Mr. Jager, on the estate of VV. Drury Lowe, Esq., where, some time before, a valuable and extensive bed of clay had been found to exist. This clay, previous to the establishment of the Denby Works, was used at the Belper Pottery for the manufacture of stoneware ink, blacking, and other bottles. The Denby clay was also supplied to the Derby China Works in considerable quantities, where it was used for saggers, and 
for a few other articles which were produced. In 1812 Joseph Bourne, son of William Bourne, of the Belper Pottery, succeeded Mr. Jager, and the Belper and Denby works were carried on simultaneously Until 1834, when the Belper Works were discontinued, and the plant and workpeople removed to Denby. The works at this time much increased, and gradually extended their operations. In 1833 the Codnor Park Works passed into the hands of Mr. Bourne, and were carried on by him, along with those of Denby, until 1861, when they were closed, and the workpeople, plant, &c., as in the case of the Belper Works, removed to Denby. In 1845 Mr. Bourne also became possessed of the Shipley Pottery, and in 1856 removed those works to Denby. With the Denby Pottery are therefore incorporated those of Belper, Codnor Park, and Shipley. Mr. Joseph Bourne having taken his son, Joseph Harvey Bourne, into partnership, the business was carried on under the style of "Joseph Bourne & Son," and has so continued until the present day. He died in 1860, and his son in 1869. In 1851 a medal was awarded to Mr. Bourne for his stone bottles.

In addition to the extensions required from time to time at Denby to provide for these continual augmentations, the business has so extended as to necessitate considerable additions and improvements. Excellent machinery has been applied to the blunging and other processes, and instead of the old system of getting rid of the water from the slip by evaporation, the clay is obtained therefrom by the patented process invented by Messrs. Needharn and Kite, 
Vauxhall, London, ten of their presses being employed, turning out at least 25 tons per day of workable clay. The class of ware produced has not varied to any extent, though an advance in shape and quality is evident from a comparison with some of the earlier specimens extant. The great bulk of the stoneware produced by Bourne & Son is the kind known as the salt-glazed stoneware, which, on account of its peculiar vitreous and non-absorbent qualities, is in great demand not only in the home market but in all parts of the world. About the year 1836 a considerable change was made in the size and form of the salt-glazed kilns, and for these improvements Mr. Joseph Bourne obtained a patent. The old kilns were only half the height of the present ones, and had each five 
chimneys. To these what may be called an upper storey has been added, and, while the lower half is fired by mouths opening into the kiln and the flame passing perpendicularly up the kiln, the upper portion is fed by fires passing out of the kiln by means of flues at the side, and the modem kilns have only one chimney, thus securing a better consumption of smoke and lessening the objectionable results which would follow from such a dense volume of smoke proceeding from a low chimney. Since this patent was taken out an additional improvement has been made by the erection on the top of each kiln of a separate small oven, in which biscuit or terra-cotta fancy articles can be burnt, these being simply burnt by the heat passing up the chimney and from the top of the kiln, but no flame or salt-glaze reaching the goods. Much thought and care as well as considerable expense have been expended during the last twenty years to perfect the manufacture of telegraph insulators, and the very large business transactions in this department proves that the enterprise of the firm has not been fruitless.

The firm have for many years possessed the exclusive right to manufacture Varley's Patent Double V. Insulators, and since the transfer of the telegraphs to the Government have executed immense quantities for that department of the public service. The firm also supplies large quantities of other patented insulators to the great English railway companies and private electrical engineering firms, and large orders have been recently received from the Canadian railway companies, these insulators being found much more efficient than the glass ones generally used on the North American Continent. The National Telephone Company has recently adopted insulators produced by this firm. A demand having arisen for white-glazed ink and other bottles, additional appliances have been provided on the most approved and modern principles, which have enabled the firm to produce a class of ware of this description unrivalled alike for its excellence and appearance.

Bottles are the staple production, and almost every variety both in the patented vitreous stone and white glazed, are made. Ink-bottles of every shape and size are made by thousands weekly, as are also ale, porter, ginger-beer, blacking, fruit, and every other kind. Spirit and other liquor bottles, with handles, up to a very large size, are also made. Foot-warmers, carriage- warmers, medical appliances, mortars and pestles, pipkins, feeding-bottles, 
candlesticks, pork-pie moulds, and every other variety of domestic and other vessels are also made, as are filters, &c.

" Hunting- Jugs " — a name by which a certain class of jugs with raised ornaments consisting of hunting subjects, are known — are made to a great extent. Some of these are made with greyhound handles, as Fig. 991. Jars for preserves, pickles, jellies, marmalades, &c., are also a staple branch of the Denby manufacture.

In terra-cotta, which is of a warm buff colour, flower vases of various designs, lotus vases, garden and other vases, wine-coolers, water-bottles, ewers with snake handles, flower-stands, Stilton-cheese stands and trays, fern-stands, fonts, Indian scent jars, butter-coolers, mignonette-boxes, and many other articles of artistic excellence are made. A finer kind of terra-cotta vases and plaques has recently, I am informed by Mr. Walker, to whom I am indebted for 
much information concerning the Denby pottery, been introduced with great success to meet the large and increasing demand for such articles for painting and 
other artistic purposes.

Jewitt, Llewellynn; The Ceramic Art Of Great Britain; New Edition; Revised (London, J. S. Virtue & Co. Limited, 1883)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Denby : J. Bourne and Son

In 1900 Joseph Bourne and Son were manufacturers of stoneware at Denby Pottery, near Derby, using the title of the firm and the name of the works as the mark upon some of the goods. The works commenced in 1809 by Jager as the Helper Pottery, a name sometimes associated with Denby in the mark. Three years later Joseph Bourne succeeded Jager and carried on the two works until 1834, when those at Belper were relinquished, and the extended establishment at Denby received the plant and employees. A year before that the Codnor Park Pottery passed into Bourne's hands. This was removed to Denby in 1861, when the manufactory was much extended. The ware made at Codnor Park by W. Burton from 1821 to 1833 was marked by either the name of the place or the person, and consisted of pots and pans, bowls, bottles, and jugs, including puzzle-jugs in stoneware or buff-coloured terra-cotta. Household ware was discontinued here by Bourne, who made only bottles at this pottery. At Denby the great bulk of the stoneware is salt-glazed bottles—for which a medal was awarded in 1851—such 
as those used to hold ink, ginger-beer, etc., and jars of all kinds. But Bourne's hunting-jugs with raised ornaments, a stag or fox chased by horsemen and dogs, or with trees, bee-hives, windmills, and men seated smoking or drinking, are amongst the best of this class of ware for hardness, durability, and glaze—salt-glaze. White glazed ware is made, and terra-cotta which has a warm buff colour allied to a fine light body, eminently suitable for flower-vases of 
various designs, lotus- vases, garden and other vases, with many other articles both useful and ornamental.

Joseph Bourne died in 1860,and his son, who was his partner, in 1869. The style of the firm, which was carried on by his descendants, remains Joseph Bourne and Son.

Blacker, J. F.; Nineteenth-Century English Ceramic Art (Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1911)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

A turnpike between Belper and Alfreton was being dug when the workers came across a seam of fine clay, near the village of Denby. The owner of this land, William Drury-Lowe leased it to William Bourne in 1806.

At first, William had the clay carted to his pottery in Belper but realized that it would be more economical to have a pottery nearer to the raw material source, this pottery was in Denby (a hut and kiln) run by Joseph Jager in 1809. 

By 1812 the site had been taken over by William, who put his youngest son Joseph in charge. 

www.onlydenby.co.uk
_______________________________________________________________________________________

After Joseph’s death in 1860 his only son, Joseph Harvey Bourne, took over the running of the Pottery. Sadly, Joseph Harvey had little time to prove he was a worthy successor to his father as he died some 9 years afterwards. For the next 30 years the pottery was managed by Joseph Harvey’s widow, Sarah Elizabeth Bourne. Under her guidance the company continued to prosper and the product range widened to include decorated artware, extended ranges of kitchenware and the pottery became one of the main producers of telegraphic insulators. 

Sarah Elizabeth Bourne - Sarah Elizabeth and Joseph Harvey had no children to inherit the thriving business and on her death in 1898 control of the pottery passed to two nephews. Sarah’s own nephew withdrew from the business in 1907, leaving the third ‘Joseph’ - Joseph Bourne Wheeler as the sole proprietor. In 1916 the firm was formed into a limited liability company with Mr Bourne Wheeler as Governing Director – a post he held until his death in 1942. 

bygonederbyshire.co.uk/articles/HISTORY_OF_DENBY_POTTERY
_______________________________________________________________________________________

1898 saw the death of Sarah Elizabeth Bourne, who had run the Denby pottery since her husband's death in 1870. Her place was immediately taken by two of her relations, Joseph Bourne-Wheeler and John Topham. Since the late 1870s, Denby had been taking cautious steps into the art pottery market, and this trend continued under Bourne-Wheeler and Topham. In 1886, the Danesby Ware branding was introduced for the first time, and was to remain in use until the 1960s, appearing as the backstamp on many successful art pottery-inspired ranges.

www.perfectpieces.co.uk
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Stone Bottle Manufactrs.
Bourne Wm. Belper
Burton Wm Condor park pottery

Potters
Bourne Jos. Walker, Ashby Wolds
Watts, Eardley & Co, Ashby Wolds

Pigot's Directory (1828)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

CODNOR PARK.....
.......
Burton William, earthenware manufacturer, F.

Glover's Directory (1829)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

CODNOR PARK liberty, with CODNOR CASTLE, form an extra-parochial district, in the same hundred as Butterley, two miles therefrom. The inhabitants obtain their chief support from the employment of the Butterley company. There is also a considerable pottery in the vicinity, of which Mr. Joseph Bourne is the Proprietor. .....

DENBY is a parish (having no dependent township) in the same hundred as Butterley, between two and three miles s. from Ripley, and about 8 N. E. from Derby. Coal and iron-works and a pottery are in the parish. ....

BOTTLE AND STONEWARE MANUFACTURER.
Bourne Joseph, Codnor Park and Denby

Pigot's Directory (1831)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

CODNOR PARK liberty, with CODNOR CASTLE, form an extra-parochial district, in the same hundred as Butterley, two miles therefrom. The inhabitants obtain their chief support from the employment of the Butterley company. There is also a considerable pottery in the vicinity, of which Mr. Joseph Bourne is the Proprietor. .....

DENBY is a parish (having no dependent township) in the same hundred as Butterley, between two and three miles s. from Ripley, and about 8 N. E. from Derby. Coal and iron-works and a pottery are in the parish. ....

BOTTLE AND STONEWARE MANUFACTURER.
Bourne Joseph, Codnor Park and Denby

Iron-Stone And Coarse Earthenware manufcrs
Bourne Joseph Walker, Church Gresley

Pigot's Directory (1835)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Potters.

Bourne Joseph (patent) 32 Basingball st

Pigot's London Directory (1839)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Bourne Joseph, derbyshire stone bottle & jar warehouse, White bear yard, 126 London wall, and 4 Wharf, south side, Paddington basin

London Post Office Directory (1843)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

CODNOR PARK is an extra parochial liberty, which contains 1,320 A. of land, 133 houses, and 815 inhabitants,........The Butterley Iron Company have 3 blast furnaces here, and steam power equal to 550 horses, and give employment to a great number of persons in the smelting and manufacturing of iron, and in the collieries; and Mr Joseph Bourne has a manufactory of stoneware bottles, &c. A market is held at Codnor on Saturday for the sale of provisions.

....Bourne Jph. stoneware manufacturer, The Pottery...... 

DENBY is a considerable parish and village, mostly of thatched houses, 3 miles S.E.  from Belper, contains 2,395 acres of clay land, 220 houses, and 1,333 inhabitants...........This parish is also noted for its manufacture of stone bottles, jars, and figured wares of all descriptions, near Smithy houses, by Mr. Joseph Bourne, who has similar works at Codnor Park. From the closeness of the texture of this vitrified clay, there is no need for the pernicious 
mineral glazes too generally used in the manufacture of such articles. They are warranted not to absorb liquid acids.

....Bourne Jph. stoneware manufacturer, The Pottery...... 

Bagshaw, Samuel; History, Gazetteer And Directory of Derbyshire (Sheffield, William Saxton, 1846)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Bourne, Joseph, derbyshire stone bottle and jar warehouse, 126 London wall, & 4 Wharf, south side, Paddington basin

Kelly, Frederic; The Small Edition of the Post Office London Directory 1848 (London, W. Kelly & Co., 1848)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

To Joseph Bourne, of Denby Pottery, in the county of Derby, for improvements in the construction of kilns for burning stone-ware and brown ware.— [Sealed 4th August, 1847.]

The patentee states, that his invention applies to that class of kilns termed Chesterfield brown-ware kilns, which each consist of a single chamber of considerable length, having four, five, or more chimneys. In addition to the above, other kilns have been made under his former patent (November 22, 1823*), composed of three stacks; two of such stacks, consisting each of two chambers or kilns, one above the other, and the third or centre stack consisting of three chambers, one above the other; the upper or third chamber of the centre stack not only receiving heat from the two chambers below, but also from the other two stacks, by means of flues, through which the heat and products of combustion pass from the latter into the upper or third chamber, and thence through five chimneys into the atmosphere. He has also constructed other kilns, each consisting of two compartments, similar to the kilns described under the former patent, but made into one large chamber, heated at its lower part in the ordinary way, and likewise by additional fires at the sides, intermediate of the height of the kiln, in the same manner as when the kiln was divided into two compartments, one above the other—still employing five or more chimneys.

According to the present invention each stack of kilns consists of two compartments or kilns, one above the other, and each stack is independent of the other stacks. The lower compartment is constructed in a similar manner to the kiln last above described; that is to say, it is of the same height as the two combined chambers described under the former patent, and is heated at the lower part, and also by fires in the sides, at the position where the partition 
divided the two chambers in the former kiln. The improvements consist in constructing a second chamber above the one just described, so that the heat and products of combustion, instead of passing from the lower chamber through five chimneys into the atmosphere, will pass into the additional chamber and thence through a single chimney into the atmosphere. The lower chamber is twenty feet long, thirteen feet high, and four feet wide; and the side fires are elevated somewhat more than half-way up the kiln. The upper chamber is seven feet six inches long, four feet nine inches high, and three feet nine inches wide; and at the centre of the upper part of it one chimney is erected, being five feet four and a half inches high, with an opening of three feet five inches by one foot eight inches. Although the patentee has found these dimensions to answer, he does not confine himself thereto. The lower kiln is divided from the upper kiln by arches,—spaces being left between them so as to allow the heat and flame to pass from the lower into the upper kiln; and the wares are placed upon the arches, which form the floor of the upper kiln. The patentee states that the upper chamber or kiln may be made of larger dimensions than those above given; in which case, he 
should prefer to have additional fires to aid in heating the same.

The patentee claims, as his invention, the mode of constructing stacks of two kilns, one above the other,—the lower one being heated at two levels, as above described. — [Enrolled in the Enrolment Office, February, 1848.]

* For description of this invention, see Vol. IX., of our First Series, p. 244.

Newton, W.; The London Journal Of Arts, Sciences, and manufacturers, and Repertory of Patent Inventions Vol. XXXII (London, W. Newton, 1848)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Specification of the Patent granted to Joseph Bourne, of Denby Pottery, in the County of Derby, for Improvements in the Construction of Kilns for Burning Stone Ware and Brown Ware.— Sealed August 4,1847.

To all to whom these presents shall come, &c., &c.— No. 3.—Vol. XI. N

My invention applies to that class of kilns which are called Chesterfield brown ware kilns, which, as is well known, each consists of a single chamber of considerable length, having four, five, or more chimneys for the passing away of the vapours and products of combustion after they have heated the kiln. In addition to the above, other kilns have been made by me under a former patent, in the construction of which I arranged kilns in three stacks, two of such 
stacks consisting each of two compartments or kilns, one over the other, the third or centre stack consisting of three chambers or kilns one above the other, the upper or third kiln of the centre stack not only receiving heat from the two chambers below it, but also from the other two stacks of kilns, the heat and products of combustion, in place of passing away into the atmosphere by chimneys after heating, the two outer stacks passing through flues into the third or upper kiln of the centre stack, and from that kiln by five chimneys into the atmosphere. I have also constructed other kilns, each consisting of the two compartments similar to the former patent, but made into one large chamber heated at its lower part in the ordinary way of heating such kilns, and also by additional fires at the sides intermediate of the height of the kiln, in like manner to when the kiln was divided into two compartments one above the other, still employing five or more chimneys to convey off the products from the fires and the kiln; I have materially improved such above-mentioned arrangement of kilns; and, according to my present improvements, each stack of kilns consists of two compartments or kilns one above the other, and each stack of kilns is independent of the other stacks of kilns, if others be used, and I construct them in the following manner:—each stack of two kilns, one above the other, is constructed, the lower one similar to the kilns last above-described, that is, the lower compartment is of the height of the two kilns of my former patent, but there is no division between them, and such chamber is heated at the lower part, and also by fires at the sides at a position where the partition divided 
the two kilns of my former patent, and the improvements consist in constructing a second chamber above the first, so that in place of the products passing into fire-chimneys, they pass into such additional chamber and heat it, and any ware therein, and thence by a single chimney into the atmosphere. The lower chamber I make about twenty feet long, about thirteen feet high, and about four feet wide, the side fires being somewhat above half way up the kiln. The upper or new kiln I make about seven feet six inches long, four feet nine inches high, and three feet nine inches wide, with one chimney at the middle of the upper part of the top kiln; the height of the chimney is five feet four and a half inches, and the opening three feet five by one foot eight. The lower kiln is partly divided from the upper kiln by arches, which allow of the products from the lower kiln to pass into the upper kiln.

I have been particular in thus giving dimensions, because they are what are practiced by me; at the same time I do not confine myself thereto, as the same may be varied. I have not found any further fires necessary for the heating of the upper chamber or kiln, such kiln depending on the heat passing away from the two lower kilns into the upper kiln. The upper part of the lower kiln is formed into arches, having a space between the neighboring arches so as to allow the heat and flame to pass from the lower into the upper kiln, the wares being placed on the arches which form the floor of the upper kilns.

I would, however, remark that the upper chamber or kiln may be made larger, in which case I should prefer to have additional fires to aid in heating the same. By this arrangement, kiln, space, or capacity is obtained and heated at the smallest expenditure of fuel.

And what I claim is,

The mode of constructing stacks of two kilns, one above the other,—the lower one being heated at two levels, as above described.—In witness, &c.

Joseph Bourne. Enrolled February 4, 1848.

MacIntosh, Alexander; The Repertory of Patent Inventions, and other Discoveries and Improvements in Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture Enlarged Series.--Vol. XI. (London, Alexander MacIntosh, 1848)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Bourne Joseph, derbyshire stone bottle & jar warehouse. 126 London wall, & 4 Wharf, south side, Paddington basin

Post Office Directory (1848)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Codnor Park is an extra-parochial liberty.......There is also a pottery for stone-ware. ......

TRADERS
Bourne Joseph, stone bottle manufacturer, Pottery
.......................

Denby is an extensive parish and large scattered village, distant 3 1/2 miles south-east from Belper, in the hundred of Moreston and Litchchurch....................Mr. Joseph Bourne has a large establishment for the manufacture of stone bottles and all kinds of fancy and other earthenware; the clay is dug on the spot, and from its peculiar texture, there is no need of mineral glazes generally used in the manufacture of these kinds of articles; fourteen ovens are used to burn the articles manufactured, which are sent to London and other parts of the kingdom, the proprietor has similar 
manufacturories at Codnor Park and Shipley. .....

China, Glass & Earthenware Dealers

Bourne Joseph, Denby Potteries, Denby, Belper; & at Codnor Park, & 126 London Wall, London

Post Office Directory East and East Midlands (1849)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Bourne Joseph, stone bottle & earthenware manufacturer, Denby potteries, & at Codnor park & Shipley, & 125 London wall, City

London Post Office Directory (1849)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Bourne Joseph, derbyshire patent stone bottle and jar warehouse, 17 Macclesfeild street north, City basin

London Post Office Directory (1851)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

19 Patent vitreous stone earthenware.—Joseph Bourne & Son, manu, near Derby England

Official catalogue of the New York Exposition of the Industry of All Nations 1853 (New York, George P. Putnam & Co., 1853)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Macclesfield st north, city road
.....
17 Bourne Joseph & Son, patent stoneware manufacturers

Potters-Wholesale
.........
Marked thus + are Brown Stone potters.
.........
+Bourne Jsph. & Son, whf Macclesfield st. north, & 7 South side, Pdngtn. basin
................

London Post Office Directory (1856)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

CODNOR PARK is an extra parochial liberty,......Messrs. Joseph Bourne and Son, of Denby pottery, have a manufactory here, of stoneware, bottles, &c. 
..........

Bourne Joseph and Son, stone bottle and earthenware mfrs., & Denby, & 17, Macclesfield st., City rd., London
......
Goodwin Humphrey, manager at Pottery

Denby......This parish is also noted for its manufacture of stone bottles, jars, and figured ware of all descriptions near Smithy houses, by Messrs. Joseph Bourne and Son, who have a similar works at Codnor Park. From the closeness of the texture of this vitrified clay, there is no need for the pernicious glazes to generally used in the manufacture of such articles. They are warranted not to absorb liquid acids. Fourteen ovens are used to burn the articles manufactured, which are sent to London, and other parts of the kingdom. .....Bourne Joseph and Son, Stone bottle and earthenware manufacturers, Denby Potteries and Condor Park; and 17. Macclesfeild street, City road, London

Shipley Township
........
Cowley Jesse John, pottery agent

White, Francis, & Company; History, Gazetteer and Directory of The County of Derby (Sheffield, Francis White & Co., 1857)
_______________________________________________________________________________________

Go further along the turnpike-road, or strike aside over Kidsley fields, and before you is Heanor church tower, and now you are in the native locality of the Howitt family, known so well to literature and to fame. Beyond is Loscoe, with its beautiful sheet of water called Loscoe-dam ; Codnor Castle and Ironworks are a little further still, with the black, busy and thriving little town of Ironville ; but you will scarcely have time to go thither in one day's ramble. Cross down, instead, to Loscoe-dam, and up by the ancient hamlet of Breach, then over to Denby Old Hall by the fields. It is said by some that Flamstead, the astronomer, was born at Denby, and there is still a house in the parish called Flamstead House. It would take you too far out of your way, perhaps, to come round by Waingriff or Waingroves, now a possession of the Rev. Wm, Peach, but formerly belonging to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem ; and by the time you reach Denby Pottery—where so usefully lived and recently so happily died worthy Joseph Bourne—you would probably be glad to take advantage of the evening train to Derby. 

Hall, Spencer T.; Days in Derbyshire (London, Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1863) 


Go To North American Soda & Beers Home